Clinical Data Management


CDM > Page1 | Page 2

Clinical Data Management (CDM) is the management of Clinical trial data from its collection to its extraction for analysis. To ensure the quality of clinical trial data, this complex process of clinical data management has evolved over time.

What are the various activities done to manage the Clinical Trial Data ?
This is what is done in general, however study specific modifications are possible.

Case Report Form (CRF) Design and Study Set up. >> More on CRF
Data Collection / capture - Entry of CRF data (into a clinical data management system [CDMS])
Capturing external (foreign) data - Merging of non-CRF data e.g. Laboratory data of the trial coming from different source other than trial sites. Batch loading is preferred than doing manual entries.
Systems & processes designed to identify bad data. Systems include the validated hardware and software involved in the job.
Identify discrepancies in the data - Determine protocol violators
Generate & track CRF's & resolve queries (Query management).
Interact with Site /Team personnel to resolve data issues
Medical Coding using standard Medical dictionaries for Medications (ConMed) and Adverse effects (AE). More..
Generate reports from the data as per sponsor requirements
Medical review of the Data.
Writing derivation rules for the SAS programmers.
Sorting and archival of the data for a specified time.

The Clinical Data Management team works closely with Clinical trial Sponsor, trial sites (Investigator / CRA* ) and statisticians/Scientists to ensure that the data obtained is as per the expectation of the trial - Operational and Statistical Analysis protocols (SAP). When a clinical trial is conducted, various operational factors at the trial site leads to collection of data that is not expected as per the Protocol documentation. The erroneous data broadly are of the following types:

Wrong Data | Correction required |
Data is missing | Data fields are empty |
Data is inconsistent , when compared across different CRF pages belonging to the same patient.
Data collected is out of range | Generally applies to Observational and Laboratory values |
Data requiring further clarification from the Trial investigator(s)|

The Clinical trial data is captured into a validated 'Clinical Data Management system (CDMS)', cleaned, reviewed and extracted and handed over to the Statisticians and Scientists for review and analysis (Eventually required for regulatory submission).

The role of CDM in clinical trials is still evolving with the emerging technology. Currently it is the most IT driven process in the business of drug development. It is the practice that matters and major part of the success of any clinical trial project lies in how robust are the processes and infrastructure of CDM facility.

Paper Trial or EDC ?

The clinical trail data is traditionally collected in a set of paper forms called as Case Report Forms. Each subjects (trial participant) data is entered in a set of separate CRF's. Part of CRF page sample is shown below :

Study Code:__________ Randomisation no: Subject Initials


Please note: written informed consent must be given before any study specific procedures take place or any current therapy is discontinued for the purposes of participation in this study.
Has the subject freely given written informed consent? Yes   No  
Age (yrs): Sex: Female  Male  
Height (m): .  
Weight (Kg): .  
Body Mass Index (BMI = Wt (kg)/H2 (M): .  


Sample Case Report Form

As seen in the CRF sample Study code, Randomisation no., subject initial, age, sex, height etc. and others hundreds of data is entered in the Paper CRF at the trial site. These CRF's are then sent to a CDM facility and data is manually entered into a Clinical Data Management Application/System. This traditional approach is loosely referred to as Paper CDM. When Data is entered directly in electronic forms at the sites and the data gets stored in a central repository then it is referred to as EDC or Electronic data capture. The decisions about whether data will be collected on paper forms or whether there will be electronic data collection is based on the number of sites participating, the type of study, the kinds of data being collected, and the available resources.

Some more details :

All of the CDM processes require documentation in a Data Management Plan. Data Management Plan finalisation marks the beginning of the process of Clinical data management. Data Management Plan (DMP) is a crucial document and serves as a master document enlisting all the processes and quality of the Clinical Data Management of a Clinical Trial. DMP may be amended and revised time to time during the coarse of the Data Management.

Clinical Data Management Steps (brief) : The Steps in CDM are available here

The CDM system (CDMS)/ Application (CDMA) (Computer Systems used to perform Data Management) :

The Computer Systems or Softwares which allow Data capture, Data cleaning, Data reporting, Data extraction and data storage in a backend Database are called Clinical Data Management systems (CDMS). Database may be Oracle, MySQL, Access, SAS datasets, indexed data (legacy data) or even Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.

frontend Application and Database

Computer System Validation : To be added soon

Some CDM / EDC Systems are listed below:

Not much products are accepted because people are reluctant to embrace new products. Interestingly FDA and other regulatory guidelines are misinterpreted.

Oracle Clinical : Oracle Corp.
Clintrial : Phase Forward
DMSys : SigmaSoft International
PhEdit : SAS
Rave : Medidata
Bioclinica EDC
Acceliant : Megasoft
eTrials EDC : Merge Healthcare
Open CDMS (open Source)
TrialDB (open Source)
Open Clinica : Akaaza Research (open Source)
| Click here for Install instructions of OpenClinica for Linux


>> More on CDM >>

Medical Coding | Web Designing | Oracle | MySQL | Linux | Java | ICH GCP | Clinical Data Management | CRF | Indian Clinical Trials | 21 CFR Part 11 | Web server | PHP | 443 & SSL | Web Hosting | GXP India | Apache | Other Databases | Image Editing | Software validation | Networking | Guitar | Disclaimer of use
Contact :